SQL : Concatenating multiple rows into a single string


In some occasions it is necessary to concatenate data from a number of rows into a single row.

Using HR.DEMO table as an example , we want to retrieve a list of employees for each department.

Base Data :


Desired Output :


One approach is to write a specific function to solve the problems.


The function can the be incorporated into a query .  For example :


On Oracle Database 10g we can use the following query:


Oracle Database 11g Release 2 has an build-in function – LISTAGG.

LISTAGG is an aggregate function that can optionally be used as an analytic (i.e. the optional OVER() clause). The following elements are mandatory:

  • the column or expression to be aggregated;
  • the WITHIN GROUP keywords;
  • the ORDER BY clause within the grouping.

For example :


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